Birds of the Usinsk Basin

Birds of the Usinsk Basin

The fauna of the Krasnoyarsk Territory includes 342 species of birds.

The Usinsk Basin is located in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, and more than 100 species of birds are found here. The landscapes of our basin are very different. This includes dark coniferous taiga, mixed forest, steppe areas, water meadows, and swamps.

Each landscape is home to different species of birds, and each species of bird has its own name, and the name almost always has an ecological basis of origin.

What should be understood by the ecological basis of the origin of names? Ecological fundamentals are the way of life, the external structure of birds, their habitat, the sounds birds make, their plumage color, behavioral characteristics and much more that is directly related to the life of birds.

Why does a particular bird have its own special name? This topic interested me. And after collecting information about birds, their names and the ecological basis of behavior and lifestyle, a pattern emerged of dividing Russian names of birds into groups according to their origin from an ecological point of view.

This work is also interesting because it turned out to be integrated in two subjects: the basics of biology and ecology of birds and the Russian language. Our Russian language is rich, beautiful, multifaceted. I expanded my horizons as I studied etymology, a science that studies the original structure of a word and identifies elements of its ancient meaning.

The purpose of the work was as follows: to find the ecological basis for the origin of the Russian names of birds of the Usinsk Basin.

The work was divided into several stages. At the first stage, work was carried out with scientific literature on the biology and ecology of birds and work with Russian language dictionaries: the etymological and explanatory dictionary of V. Dahl.

At the second stage, I observed birds in the area, became acquainted with the ecological basis of their life activity (specifically I observed each species of bird - I was at a capercaillie lek, a grouse lek, etc.).

At the third stage, a comparison was made of the ecological foundations of the life activity of birds and their names, that is, the work itself was written. A computer presentation was made on this work. It contains drawings and photographs of birds of the Usinsk Basin, their voices are heard, and an explanation is given of the origin of the name of a particular bird.

Materials and methods of research: The material for the work was: scientific, educational and educational literature on the biology and ecology of birds and the object of study - the birds themselves living on the territory of the Usinsk Basin. This work was carried out throughout 2005. In the spring and summer, bird observations were carried out during excursions and walks into the forest by me and together with members of the school forestry during excursions. My parents provided me with great help in studying birds.

Birds of the Usinsk Basin, which got their names from the sounds they make.

This group of birds got their names from the sounds they make either from the vocal cords or other parts of the body. Often the name of a bird itself includes part of its song or call.

Common snipe (wader order) Gallinago gaiinago L (Charadriiformes). Medium sized sandpiper. In the spring, during mating, a strange “bleating” is heard, as if a lost kid or lamb is calling its mother. It turns out that in flight, the bird dives down, spreading its tail. The extreme feathers in the tail /they are of a special shape and, bent strongly to the side, /vibrate, producing a sound very similar to bleating - hence the name. Common in the Usinsk Basin.

Chatter (order passeriformes) Hippolais caligata (Passeriformes). A very small bird, grayish-brown above and whitish below, very secretive. It deftly climbs grass stems and runs quickly on the ground. The male's song begins with a call, then there are different variations of it, reminiscent of a quiet muttering.

Great godwit (order waders) Limosa limosa L (Charadriiformes).Great godwit is a large sandpiper with a very long straight bill and legs. The alarm cry at the nest is heard as “spindle - spindle - spindle.” Common sandpiper of the steppe, forest-steppe and southern forest zone of the region.

The bittern (order wavy) is a rather large, short-legged heron. In the spring, its trumpet sounds can be heard for 2-3 kilometers: “”, comparable only to the roar of an angry bull. For this strange singing, the bittern is called a bull or a swamp cow. The name “bittern” itself comes from the words “scream and scream.” It is rare in the Usinsk Basin.

The mallard (plate-billed order) is a rather large duck that makes a quiet quack “quack-quack-quack.” The name is given by the sounds it makes.

Cuckoo (order cuckoo) Cuculus canorus L. (Cuculiformes) is a slender long-tailed bird slightly smaller than a pigeon, similar in appearance to a goshawk. The upperparts are usually dark gray, but females and juveniles are reddish. The name is based on the heard sound made by the male “ku-ku - ku-ku”, with which he attracts the female. The female's voice is a ringing trill "kli - kli - kli", or a dull cry, similar to muffled "uterine" laughter. The cuckoo lives everywhere in the Usinsk Basin, and in May - June, without even leaving your yard, you hear: “cuckoo.”

Kuksha (passeriformes order) Perisoreus infaustus L. (Passeriformes) is a characteristic bird of the closed, predominantly coniferous taiga, including mountain taiga. The general color is grayish-brown, the top of the head and wings are dark brown, the undertail is reddish, the tail is red. The flight is weak, fluttering, like that of a large butterfly. The voice is a loud cry “kzhee...kzhee”, melodious “kuuk...kuuk...kuuk”. The kuksha got its name for these sounds.

Waxwing (passerine order) Bombycilla garrulus L. (Passeriformes) is a very beautiful bird, the size of a starling, with a large crest on its head. The plumage is thick and fluffy. The voice is a gentle “svirri-svirri.” Numerous and common species of the Usinsk Basin. These birds wander in search of food and, in late autumn, whole flocks fly to the village to berry trees and bushes.

Rooster (chicken order). In ancient times, the sonorous “ku-ka-re-ku” was even endowed with magical properties, believing that it drives away evil spirits. The Russian name for the loud-mouthed bird comes from the word sing: the ancient name was the word - pet, the Old Slavonic form of “loops”.

Buzzard (order Diurnal raptors) Buteo buteo (Falconiformes) is the most common bird of prey in the southern part of the region. It is common in the Usinsk Basin and loves rocky slopes, where it hunts lizards. In addition to lizards, it feeds on small rodents, frogs, insects, and sometimes small birds. Shouty, voice - a mournful and drawn-out "kii...kii" They called him Buzzard for his loud, drawn-out cries, with which he seemed to beg for something - "moaning."

The scops owl (order Nocturnal raptors) is a very small slender owl with well-developed “ears” that are not always visible. Inhabitant of light deciduous and mixed forests, pine forests, gardens, and cultural landscapes. It feeds mainly on nocturnal insects, occasionally rodents and small birds. Common in the Usinsk Basin. The name of the bird comes from the melodic and sad whistle, which sounds “sleep - yu, sleep - yu.”

Tit (order passeriformes). According to Dahl, the tit owes its name to the adjective “blue.” Moreover, in its motley plumage there is always a shade of blue, and one of the birds is called the blue tit. But that's not true. The original name of the tit was the Slavic - zinitsa, which came from the onomatopoeic “zin - zin”.

Carrion crow (passerine order) Corvus corone L. (Passeriformes) is a bird of black color with a sheen, well known to everyone. In the Usinsk Basin, the black crow is a common and numerous bird. Especially in winter, it stays close to human habitation. The name comes from the adjective “raven” - black, shiny with a tint. But in Rus' the crow was called a hag from the onomatopoeic “car - car.”

Magpie (passerine order) - Pica pica (Passeriformes). According to Dahl, the name of this bird has several variants of origin: 1) from the word chirp, which means to make a sharp, crackling sound; 2) from the word “stringed” - motley; 3) from the words “chirp, chirp” - jump, gallop, jump. All three options for the origin of the word “magpie” can be accepted, since the magpie attracts attention with its liveliness, variegation and restless chirping./V. Dahl. Explanatory dictionary of the Russian language/. Magpie is a common and numerous species for Usinsk and its environs.

Hoopoe (order Coraciiformes) - Upupa epops (Coraciiformes) - a common Slavic name that comes from the onomatopoeic - “ud”. The hoopoe's rather loud cry is closest to "doo-doo-doo" or "whoop-whoop-whoop." But it is also conveyed differently: “It’s bad here, it’s bad here.” Hoopoes usually settle in wastelands and undeveloped areas, and this interpretation is quite understandable. The hoopoe is a common bird in the Usinsk Basin.

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